Design Patterns with Swift: Facade pattern

facade image

About the pattern

Facade pattern is one of the Structural Patterns. The main aim of it is to hide the complexity of a system, class or logic and provide all functionalities behind a simple interface. Commonly, Facade is implemented in a way that one class is related to other classes which represents a system logic. Please take a look at the diagram:

diagram

As you can see, there is one class called Facade which separates the logic from LogicA, LogicB, LogicC classes. As a result our client only call the Facade class in order to execute some methods that are implemented in other classes.

Implementation

Let’s imagine a simple scenario. You have already created a great app called Super-Photo. One of the core features of your app is saving/converting assets/posts with JPEG or PNG extension. In order to do this you want to save UIImage representation in two ways. One is saving it as a PNG type, the second is saving it as a JPEG file type.

Fistly, in order to handle our image types and possible errors in our code - it will be nice to have two enums that will make our code cleaner and more readable.

enum ImageSaverError: Error {
    case couldNotCreateDestinationPath
    case couldNotCreateJPEGDataFromImage
    case couldNotCreatePNGDataFromImage
    case couldNotSaveImageInDestinationPath
}

enum ImageType {
    case png
    case jpeg(compressionQuality: CGFloat)
}

On the next step you will need to create a class that will handle a data providing for each photo extension:

class ImageDataProvider {
    func data(from image: UIImage, type: ImageType) throws -> Data {
        switch type {
        case .jpeg(let compressionQuality):
            return try jpegData(from: image, compressionQuality: compressionQuality)
        case .png:
            return try pngData(from: image)
        }
    }

    private func pngData(from image: UIImage) throws -> Data {
        guard let imageData = UIImagePNGRepresentation(image) else { throw ImageSaverError.couldNotCreateJPEGDataFromImage }
        return imageData
    }

    private func jpegData(from image: UIImage, compressionQuality: CGFloat) throws -> Data {
        guard let imageData = UIImageJPEGRepresentation(image, compressionQuality) else { throw ImageSaverError.couldNotCreatePNGDataFromImage }
        return imageData
    }
}

As you’ve noticed, our ImageDataProvider takes image and type parameters and creates the image data with proper extension JPEG or PNG.

The last step is to create class which is needed to save UIImage. So let’s name it a PathProvider.

class PathProvider {
    func createDestinationPath(fileName: String) throws -> URL {
        guard let path = FileManager.default.urls(for: .documentDirectory, in: .userDomainMask).first else {
            throw ImageSaverError.couldNotCreateDestinationPath
        }
        let destinationPath = path.appendingPathComponent("\(fileName)")
        return destinationPath
    }
}

Ok, so at the moment we have two classes with some logic inside. Now it’s time to create a facade for it!

let's do this

Create a class called ImageSaverFacade :

class ImageSaverFacade {
    private let pathProvider = PathProvider()
    private let dataProvider = ImageDataProvider()

    func save(image: UIImage, type: ImageType, fileName: String, overwrite: Bool) throws {
        let destinationURL = try pathProvider.createDestinationPath(fileName: fileName)
        let imageData = try dataProvider.data(from: image, type: type)
        let writingOptions: Data.WritingOptions = overwrite ? (.atomic) : (.withoutOverwriting)
        try imageData.write(to: destinationURL, options: writingOptions)
    }
}

Our ImageSaverFacade class has two private objects of PathProvider and ImageDataProvider class. Because the client doesn’t need to know anything about logic inside, the only thing which ImageSaverFacade exposes to a public is one method:

This method is the only thing that our client should care about.

Now let’s move on to the facade usage part:

let imageSaver = ImageSaverFacade()
let image = UIImage(named: "my_image")!
do {
    try imageSaver.save(image: image, type: .png, fileName: "my_file_name", overwrite: true)
} catch  {
    //handle Error
}
// or
do {
    try imageSaver.save(image: image, type: .jpeg(compressionQuality: 1.0), fileName: "my_file_name", overwrite: false)
} catch  {
    //handle Error
}

Conclusion

Please notice that our facade covers logic associated with Data providing and creating a valid URL for file destination. And because of that, it is super easy to save UIImage as PNG or JPEG using our ImageSaverFacade. Only thing to do is to pass the correct parameters to facade method.

Facade design pattern can be used in many cases. Facade creates for you a simple gateway to a complicated system. By using it you will definitely make your code simpler to understand and read.

This post was primarly posted on my company blog

Kamil Wysocki

Kamil Wysocki

iOS developer, programmer

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